E.S. Kim, M.S. Kim and A. Moon, TGF-beta-induced upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 depends on p38 MAPK, but not ERK signaling in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells, Int. J. Oncol. 25 (2004), pp. 1375–1382.
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Int J Oncol. 2004 Nov;25(5):1375-82.
TGF-beta-induced upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 depends on p38 MAPK, but not ERK signaling in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells.
Kim ES, Kim MS, Moon A.
College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul 132-714, Korea.
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been reported to exert growth inhibitory activity in normal epithelial cells whereas it induces cell proliferation and invasive phenotypes in advanced carcinomas. Our previous study showed that MCF10A, a spontaneously immortalized "normal" breast epithelial cell line, is resistant to TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition, suggesting that conversion of TGF-beta growth inhibitory signaling into an oncogenic pathway may occur at the early stage of tumor development/progression. To address this issue, we investigated the TGF-beta signaling pathway and its role in phenotypic transformation of MCF10A cells. TGF-beta treatment induced changes in the MCF10A cell morphology from cuboidal to an elongated spindle-like shape, accompanied with down-regulation of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. TGF-beta treatment was sufficient to induce migrative and invasive phenotypes in these cells, an important phenotypic conversion during tumor progression. We also showed that TGF-beta treatment rapidly activated ERK-1/2 and p38 MAPK leading to upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Using chemical inhibitors and dominant negative mutants of MAPKs, we provide evidence that while both p38 MAPK and ERKs are required for TGF-beta-induced MCF10A cell migration and invasion, TGF-beta-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression depends on p38 MAPK signaling, but is independent of ERK activity. This study demonstrates the roles of TGF-beta signaling pathways for induction of oncogenic signaling in preneoplastic human breast epithelial cells and will deepen our understanding of TGF-beta signaling in the progress of breast cancer.